In 1908 and 1925, Pension Acts introduced non-contributory and contributory pensions although they were substantially below subsistence levels. The Beveridge Report of 1942 recommended subsistence level state pensions for all workers on reaching the age of retirement.
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- Land, A., Lowe, R. & Whiteside, N., The Development of the Welfare State 1939-1951 A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (London: HMSO, 1992)
- Bridgen, P. & Lowe, R., Welfare Policy under the Conservatives 1951-1964 A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (London: PRO Publications, 1998)
- Glennerster, H., British Social Policy 1945 to the Present (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007)
- Timmins, N., The Five Giants A Biography of the Welfare State (London: Harper Collins Publisher, 2001)