By the time the Cabinet Office was created in December 1916, the great fleet battles at Dogger Bank and Jutland had passed. However, the government now had to cope with a new form of conflict - unrestricted submarine warfare.
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- Hough, R., The Great War at Sea 1914-1918 (Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd, 2000)
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- Offer, A., The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989)