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Glossary

Act of attainderan act which allowed Parliament to vote an accused person innocent or guilty, rather than giving them a proper trial
Barebones ParliamentParliament that sat from April to December 1653 whose members were not elected but were chosen by the army commanders
batteryone or more heavy artillery pieces (cannons)
bishopssenior churchmen responsible for appointing church ministers and making sure church rules were followed, and who often took on jobs in government as well
bulwarkstrong defensive barrier
Commonwealth term meaning the good of the people (the common good); also used to describe the system which ruled England from 1649-53
confinementthe state of being locked up or in prison
County Committeesorganisations set up by Parliament in the Civil War to control areas of the country, collect taxes and carry out orders of Parliament
constitutiona system of basic laws and principles that outlines the nature and limits of a government or another institution
couptakeover or revolt
courtthe gathering of people around the monarch, which usually included the royal family, important officials, and members of important families
covenant agreement or contract
dragoon soldier who travelled on horseback but fought on foot
forced loantype of tax where people were made to loan money to the king but had little or no chance of getting it back
godly showing great respect to God in one’s life, which in this period often meant the kind of behaviour which hard-line Protestants liked, e.g. plain churches and simple church services, avoiding drink and rowdy entertainment
Grand Remonstrancedocument published by Parliament in 1641 which criticised Charles I and his officials
grievance complaint
impeach to charge a public official with bad behaviour in office, e.g. a legal process against an official in Parliament
Justice common term for a local magistrate or judge
Levellersradical political group led by John Lilburne which became politically important in 1646-49
Lieutenantofficial representing the king, an important position of power
Lord Protectortitle of Oliver Cromwell from 1653-58, when he ruled Britain
martial lawrule by the army
moderateone who holds moderate (middle-of-the-road) views or opinions, especially in politics or religion
monarchking or queen
monopolycontrol of a particular business or trade by one individual or organisation
ordinancelaw passed by Parliament without the agreement of the king
political nationthe important people of the country, such as the nobles, smaller landowners and wealthy merchants in the towns
predestinationPresbyterian belief that everything that happens is God’s will
Presbyteriansbelieved that the power of the church was a group responsibility. Assemblies of elected Elders or Presbyters controlled their congregations. Presbyterianism was very strong in Scotland and it was based on the teaching of John Calvin (1509-64) which emphasised predestination
prelateimportant type of churchman such as a bishop or archbishop
Pride’s Purgeevent in 1648 when Colonel Thomas Pride stopped MPs from entering Parliament if they were still in favour of negotiating with Charles I and were not prepared to put him on trial for treason
Privy Councilthe closest advisers to the ruler
proclamation law issued by the monarch; announcement
Protectoratesystem of government in Britain from 1653-58, led by Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector
Protestantsmembers of a Christian church that began in the 16th century as a break-away from the Roman Catholic Church
Puritansa group of English Protestants who believed in strict religious discipline, plain church ceremonies and a simple godly life
Putney Debatesdiscussions between army leaders and junior officers in 1647 about how the country should be run
radicalone who wants big or revolutionary changes in current conditions or institutions, e.g. in politics or religion
redoubt / redoutdefensive position with a ditch and walls
regimentunit within an army
remonstrance document protesting or complaining about an issue
republicsystem of government with no monarch
Rump Parliament Parliament made up of the MPs left after Pride’s Purge in December 1648 which ruled the country until 1653
SabbathSunday
sermonpart of the Christian church service where the priest or minister preaches to the people
sovereignone who rules and has top authority e.g. king or Parliament or other kind of ruler who is in charge
tallage type of land tax, usually on crown lands and royal towns
warrantan official order, e.g. an order to arrest a person, or an order to pay money