How to look for records of... Criminal courts in England and Wales from 1972
How can I view the records covered in this guide?
1. Why use this guide?
This research guide provides advice on finding records of the Crown Court and magistrates’ courts.
Crown and magistrates’ courts replaced the assize and quarter sessions courts in 1971.
It does not cover civil court records such as those created by the tribunals service (which deals with cases of, for example, child support and social security), county courts (civil litigation) or the civil division of the High Court and the Court of Appeal.
For more detailed advice on records of the Central Criminal Court (the Crown Court in the City of London) see our guide to Trials in the Old Bailey and the Central Criminal Court.
2. Abolition of the assize and quarter sessions courts
The ‘Report of the Royal Commission on Assizes and Quarter Sessions’ (Sessional Papers, House of Commons, Cmnd 4153, 1966-69, XXVIII, 433) was published in 1969. Chaired by Lord Beeching, the three year investigation identified many problems with the existing criminal justice system. To improve efficiency the report recommended its replacement with a nationally administered court and the Courts Act 1971 incorporated most of the recommendations. As a result, a higher criminal court known as the Crown Court of the Supreme Court of Judicature replaced the assizes and quarter sessions in 1972.
3. What are Crown courts?
Crown courts hear serious indictable offences such as robbery, rape and murder. A judge has overall responsibility for the court with a jury of twelve people providing the verdict. They also hear referrals for sentencing and appeals from lower courts.
There are approximately 90 Crown courts around England and Wales and they include the Central Criminal Court in the City of London, popularly known as the Old Bailey. Liverpool and Manchester Crown courts are anomalies. They were established in 1956 following recommendations that they would combat a rise in crime in these areas. These new courts took responsibility for the quarter sessions work as well as criminal assize work for south Lancashire. The assizes work for the west Derby area was assigned to Liverpool and the assizes work of Salford was assigned to Manchester.
4. Crown court records: indictments
4.1 What are indictments?
The indictment is an important document and contains key information about the progress of the trial, outcome and appeal (if relevant). The indictment was formally annotated during the trial thereby providing a concise account of the events and decisions that occurred. If the case went to appeal, the indictment will record the outcome.
Information contained on the indictment includes:
- defendant’s name, sex and date of birth
- whether bail or custody was granted
- date committed for trial, conviction and sentence date
- trial dates (from/to) added upon completion of the trial
- the identity of the firm of shorthand writers
- name of the Crown court who will hear the case
- judge’s name
- defence counsel names of barristers and solicitors
- prosecution counsel names of barristers and solicitors
- offences charged to the defendant listed as separate ‘counts’
- defendant’s plea to the charges
- jury’s verdict
- sentence or order
- appeal details – date of appeal and whether grounds for appeal granted or refused
A copy indictment is usually attached to the indictment and includes a list of witnesses called to trial, along with repeating much of the information contained within the initial indictment.
4.2 How to search for indictments at The National Archives
Many Crown courts have not yet sent any indictment files to The National Archives and their records remain in the custody of HM Courts and Tribunal Service. For information about these records contact the Ministry of Justice. Contact details for the Crown courts can be found from the Courts Service website.
To find out whether we hold the records for a particular Crown court, click on the respective link in the table in section 7. Some indictments are closed for extended periods, for example, indictments that identify minors, and are therefore not accessible.
A case number is recorded on each indictment and will take the same format as in this example: ‘721717’. The ’72’ denotes the year, in this case 1972, and the 1717 denotes the 1717th case heard by the Crown court that year.
5. Crown court records: case files
5.1 What are case files and which of them are selected for preservation?
Information contained within a case file varies from one file to another but can include: committal proceedings, court logs, police statements, copy indictment, evidence for the prosecution, list of witnesses with their statements and depositions, list of exhibits produced in court, photographs of the crime scene, sentence, and detail of appeal.
Not all individual case files are kept permanently. Those that are kept tend to be files that record more serious crimes, cases that attracted public interest, or were of significance (either legally or historically), or where the accused was eminent or infamous or if the case generated widespread public concern. Files have also been selected to represent the wide variety of cases heard by the Crown courts.
5.2 How to search for case files at The National Archives
For many of the Crown courts, The National Archives holds only samples of surviving case files.
To find a case file search our catalogue using any combination of the following search terms:
- name of defendant (surname followed by a comma and then first name), for example, ‘Smith, John’
- name of the Crown court (for example, Shrewsbury)
- the phrase ‘case files’
You can search within the records of a specific court by using the advanced search and selecting the appropriate record series from the table in section 7 as your reference.
The naming of a defendant within our catalogue does not imply guilt.
6. Crown court records: transcripts
Court stenographers recorded the proceedings in short hand known as computer aided transcription notes. These were filed separately from the case file and not kept permanently. However, if the defendant lodged an appeal within five years of the conviction then long hand notes were recreated from the original computer aided transcription notes for the appeal and may be found on the criminal appeal case file (see section 8).
7. Table of record series for Crown court records
Not all of the documents in the record series below have been transferred to The National Archives because each Crown court transfers documents at a different rate.
Click on the links below to view the record series description – the ‘Access conditions’ will indicate whether or not files have been transferred from the Crown Court to The National Archives.
|Crown Court||Record series in which case files are or will be held||Record series in which indictments are or will be held||Other records for this court|
|Acton||J 238||J 239|
|Aylesbury||J 240||J 241|
|Beverley||J 224||J 225|
|Birmingham||J 190||J 191|
|Bodmin||J 305||J 306|
|Bolton||J 208||J 209|
|Bournemouth||J 307||J 308|
|Bradford||J 226||J 227|
|Bristol||J 309||J 310|
|Burnley||J 236||J 237|
|Cambridge||J 242||J 243|
|Canterbury||J 244||J 245|
|Carlisle||J 289||J 290|
|Central Criminal Court||J 267||J 268, J 336 index||J 164|
|Chelmsford||J 265||J 266|
|Chester||J 301||J 302|
|Chichester||J 246||J 247|
|Coventry||J 192||J 193|
|Croydon||J 248||J 249|
|Derby||J 194||J 195|
|Doncaster||J 228||J 229|
|Dudley||J 254||J 174|
|Durham||J 230||J 231|
|Exeter||J 311||J 312|
|Gloucester||J 313||J 314|
|Grimsby||J 259||J 260|
|Guildford||J 250||J 251|
|Harrow||J 263||J 264|
|Inner London Crown Court||J 269||J 270|
|Ipswich||J 261||J 262|
|Isleworth||J 252||J 253|
|Kingston-upon-Hull||J 220||J 221|
|Kingston-upon-Thames||J 279||J 280|
|Knightsbridge||J 216||J 217|
|Leeds||J 291||J 292|
|Leicester||J 196||J 197|
|Lewes||J 277||J 278|
|Lincoln||J 234||J 235|
|Liverpool||J 222||J 223||J 108|
|Luton||J 218||J 219|
|Maidstone||J 206||J 207|
|Manchester||J 287||J 288||J 109|
|Merthyr Tydfil||J 303||J 304|
|Middlesex Guildhall||J 275||J 276|
|Newcastle upon Tyne||J 212||J 213|
|Newport (Isle of Wight)||J 315||J 316|
|Northampton||J 257||J 258|
|Norwich||J 273||J 274|
|Nottingham||J 188||J 189|
|Oxford||J 186||J 187|
|Peterborough||J 184||J 185|
|Plymouth||J 319||J 320|
|Portsmouth||J 317||J 318|
|Preston||J 285||J 286|
|Reading||J 202||J 203|
|Salisbury||J 329||J 330|
|Sheffield||J 214||J 215|
|Shrewsbury||J 182||J 183|
|Snaresbrook||J 200||J 201|
|Southampton||J 327||J 328|
|Southwark||J 204||J 205|
|St Albans||J 271||J 272|
|Stafford||J 180||J 181|
|Stoke-on-Trent||J 178||J 179|
|Swindon||J 325||J 326|
|Taunton||J 323||J 324|
|Teesside||J 283||J 284|
|Truro||J 321||J 322|
|Wakefield||J 281||J 282|
|Warrington||J 333||J 334|
|Warwick||J 176||J 177|
|Weymouth||J 295||J 296|
|Winchester||J 297||J 298|
|Wolverhampton||J 173||J 175|
|Wood Green||J 198||J 199|
|Woolwich||J 210||J 211|
|Worcester||J 255||J 256|
|York||J 232||J 233|
|Cardiff||J 299||J 300|
|Newport (Gwent)||J 293||J 294|
|Swansea||J 331||J 332|
8. Court of Appeal records
The Court of Appeal (criminal division) was established in 1966 and replaced the system of petitioning the Secretary of State for Home Affairs.
Search for the records of the Court of Appeal (criminal division) and its predecessors in:
For further information see the research guide Supreme Court: Appeal cases after 1875.
9. What are magistrates’ courts?
Magistrates’ courts deal with the majority of all civil and criminal cases, estimated at 95%, which are the less serious, or ‘summary’ offences, some of which can carry a six month prison sentence (12 months for consecutive sentences). Defendants are tried by a single magistrate or a panel of magistrates rather than a jury.
Examples of the types of cases heard are drunk and disorderly, criminal damage, and common assault.
10. Magistrates’ court records
Records of magistrates’ courts are not held by The National Archives. Preserved records of magistrates courts are held at local county and city record offices. Records can include:
- court registers (including juvenile and youth courts)
- bail registers
To find records held in local archives, search our catalogue, using the name of the court or just the term ‘magistrates’, and refine your results using the filters.
Find contact details for archives elsewhere using Find an archive.
Contact details for magistrates’ courts can be found from the Courts Service website.
11. Further reading
The following recommended publications are available in the The National Archives’ Library.
Richard Beeching, Royal Commission on Assizes and Quarter Sessions 1966-69: Report (London, 1969)
Michael Zander, Cases and materials on the English legal system (London, 10th edition, 2007)