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Glossary

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A

Account Definition: Manorial accounts of various officials such as reeves, bedells and bailiffs. They are often described in the Latin as compoti. Where the official is not identified, the documents are described as 'ministers' accounts'. Accounts of receivers, chamberlains and farmers have not be included on the Manorial Documents Regsiter since these officials presented their accounts under the administration of estates rather than manors. Therefore, they are not manorial documents. Later accounting records, such as cash books, day books and ledgers if they relate to an individual manor are included. Manorial accounts are usually in Latin and use many abbreviations. They are unlikely to contain information about specific individuals.
Descriptive term: account(s), account roll(s), ministers' account(s), (named official's) account(s) eg reeve's account, account book(s), cash book(s), ledger(s), particular of accounts
Artefact Definition: Objects such as steward's rods and rattles which may have survived with manorial records or have been deposited in repositories individually.
Descriptive term: steward's rod (or the name of the specific object)
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B

Boundaries Definition: Descriptions of boundaries and papers, correspondence and notes relating to manorial boundaries. Used where the record is not a formal perambulation.
Descriptive term: bounds, boundaries, description of boundaries, papers/notes/agreement/corresp rel to boundaries
See also: Perambulation, Inquisition, Legal papers, Map
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C

Call Definition: Call rolls and call books, a type of manor court attendance register.
Descriptive term: call roll(s), call book(s)
See also: Suit
Correspondence Definition: Correspondence, usually stewards correspondence, occurring as more than a single item. The subject(s) of the correspondence must be included in the description field. Correspondence relating to the title to the manor is not included on the Manorial Documents Regsiter.
Descriptive term: correspondence rel to + subject
Court book Definition: Formal record of the manorial courts when kept in a volume. Documents describing themselves as court books may only be minutes (rather than formal records) or documents which do not include the record of sessions of the manor court. These have still been described as court books.
Descriptive term: court book(s), index(es) to court books
See also: Court roll, Court file, Minutes, Presentment, Verdict
Court file Definition: Formal record of the manor court in file form. The file should include the other papers relating to that particular session of the court e.g. warrant(s), suit roll, jury list, presentments, returns of petty constable.
Descriptive term: court file(s)
See also: Court roll, Court book, Minutes, Presentment, Verdict
Court procedures Definition: Volumes and papers containing forms of oaths of officers, forms of keeping court, articles of enquiry to be used at all courts, specimen documents.
Descriptive term: formulary book, form(s) of oaths of officers, form(s) of keeping courts, forms of articles of enquiry...
Court Roll Definition: Formal record of the manor court, whether in roll-form or on sheets of paper.
Descriptive term: court roll(s), index(es) to court rolls
See also: Court book, Court file, Minutes, Presentment, Verdict
Customs Definition: Lists of customs and papers, notes and extracts relating to customs. Used where the record is not a formal custumal.
Descriptive term: list of customs, papers/notes/extracts/abstract rel to customs
See also: Custumal, Survey, Inquisition, Legal papers
Custumal Definition: An early type of survey which consists of a list of the manor's tenants with the customs under which each held his house and lands.
Descriptive term: custumal(s)
See also: Customs, Survey
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E

Enfranchisement Definition: Papers, files and deeds relating to enfranchisement of copyhold land, resulting from a series of permissive Acts of Parliament in the 19th century, and also to 20th century compulsory enfranchisement. Used for records in The National Archives in classes MAF 9 and MAF 20. Although specifically excluded from the Manorial Documents Rules, these have now been included for the sake of completeness.
Descriptive term: For papers in private collections - papers and correspondence rel to enfranchisement, deed(s) of enfranchisement
For MAF 9 - deed(s) and award(s) of enfranchisement of copyhold land
For MAF 20 - file(s) of evidence rel to enfranchisement of copyhold land
See also: Incidents
Essoin Definition: Documents separate from the court roll, listing the essoins, or excuses for non-attendance at court.
Descriptive term: essoins
See also: Call, Suit
Estreat Definition: Documents which list the fines (customary payments) and amercements (penalty payments) imposed by the manor court to be collected by one of the manorial officials.
Descriptive term: estreat(s), estreat roll(s)
Extent Definition: A type of survey in which every item has a valuation attached to it. Extents take their form from the extenta manerii, and will always describe themselves as extents. They date mainly from the mid- thirteenth century until about the mid-fourteenth century. After this date they are rare but may still be found. Extents attached to Inquisitions post mortem are not included in the Manorial Documents Regsiter.
Descriptive term: extent(s)
See also: Survey
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I

Incidents Definition: After compulsory enfranchisement of copyhold land in the 1920s, certain charges and interests in the lands still remained. They were known as manorial incidents. These could be extinguished by payment of compensation by the tenant or copyholder to the lord of the manor. Used for papers relating to manorial incidents, particularly papers relating to compensation for extinguishment of manorial incidents. Used for records in The National Archives in classes MAF 13 and MAF 27. Although specifically excluded from the Manorial Documents Rules, these have now been included for the sake of completeness.:
Descriptive term: For papers in private collections - papers and correspondence rel to extinguishment of manorial incidents
For MAF 13 - certificate(s)/agreement(s) of compensation for extinguishment of manorial incidents
For MAF 27 - certificate(s) of determination of compensation for extinguishment of manorial incidents
See also: Enfranchisement
Inquisition Definition: Enquiries into specific matters e.g. boundaries, commons, or customs, other than the court of survey. The subject of the inquisition must be included in the description field. Inquisitions post mortem are not manorial documents and are not included.
Descriptive term: inquisition(s) rel to + subject
See also: Survey, Boundaries, Customs
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J

Jury Definition: Lists of jury in the manorial court. Also used for charges to the jury which are articles of enquiry for a routine court rather than a court of survey or inquisition.
Descriptive term: jury list, charge to jury
See also: Suit, Call
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L

Lease Definition: Used for registers of leases and bundles of leases which are only included on the Manorial Documents Regsiter when they occur as a bundle or small group. Leases of the manor as a whole are not included on the Manorial Documents Regsiter.
Descriptive term: leases, register(s) of leases/leaseholders
See also: Surrender and Admission
Legal papers Definition: Papers relating to legal matters such as disputes between the tenants and lord over rights and customs. The subject of the dispute should appear in the description field. Disputes over title to a manor are not included.
Descriptive term: legal papers rel to + subject, incl ...(eg case for opinion, case and opinion, depositions)
See also: Customs, Boundaries
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M

Map Definition: Maps and plans of a manor. The basic description is 'map' and no other details such as scale or surveyor are given. If the map has been drawn up to illustrate a particular aspect of the manor such as the location of commons or the extent of encroachments this has been added to the basic description. Maps may accompany surveys or rentals. Numbers included on maps often relate to tables of references which list field names, tenants and acreages. Ordnance Survey maps, although not manorial documents, have been included where they have been marked to show manor boundaries. Volumes of estate maps have not be trawled for maps of manors or parts of manors.
Descriptive term: map(s)
See also: Survey, Boundaries, Rental
Minutes Definition: Minutes taken at sessions of the manor court.
Descriptive term: minutes, minute book(s)
See also: Court roll, Court book, Court file
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P

Pains Definition: Documents containing a list of ordinances or orders upon the breaking of which, an amercement (payment), or 'pain', is imposed. For example, "that the beck which runs between the lordships of Scampston and Wintringham shall be sufficiently scoured and dressed.....as often as it is necessary, by those who ought to do the same on pain for every rood thereof in default 6d". These documents are sometimes catalogued as 'ordinances' in repository lists. By-laws, serve a similar purpose to pains but are more general. By-laws list the ordinances but do not include a specific pain or penalty. For example, "No one shall let their pig roam on the crops". By-laws are included under the keyword pains but described as by-laws in the description field.
Descriptive term: pains, pains book(s), list of pains laid, by-laws
See also: Customs
Particular Definition: A description of the manor often written by the steward, and accompanied by a valuation, as distinct from a survey made by a court of survey. Printed sale particulars of manors are not included on the Manorial Documents Regsiter.
Descriptive term: particular(s), particular and valuation(s)
See also: Survey, Valuation
Perambulation Definition: A document created as a result of the practice of perambulation, or 'beating' the bounds of a manor.
Descriptive term: perambulation
See also: Boundaries, Survey
Presentment Definition: List of matters to be dealt with by the court. Drawn up by the jury, sometimes in advance of the court. Includes the phrase "we present that.....". Used for presentments which are separate from the court roll. Because the headings of both types of documents may be very similar, care must be taken to distinguish presentments from court rolls.
Descriptive term: presentments(s)
See also: Court roll, Court book, Court file
Probate Definition: Used for documents including wills, inventories and administrations created when a manor had its own probate jurisdiction; in other words was a 'peculiar' of probate jurisdiction.
Descriptive term: wills, inventories, administrations, probate register(s), probate act book(s), papers rel to probate
See also: Will
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R

Rent Definition: Used for a document which lists tenants and their rents which were taken in a given year. These terms should be used for accounts of rents due/received, and arrears of rent/chief rent due/received.
Descriptive term: rent roll(s), account(s) of rents due/received, account(s) of arrears of rent(s) due/received
See also: Rental, Survey, Tenants, Residents
Rental Definition: A rental is a document listing tenants and rents payable, often used repeatedly over a period of years. Where an estate contained a group of manors, estate rentals, although not manorial documents, have been included for the information on manorial tenants which they may contain. A further description of the subject of the rental may be included. For example, copyhold, cottage rents.
Descriptive term: rental(s)
See also: Rent, Survey, Tenants, Residents
Residents Definition: Resiant rolls, lists of resiants (residents) and lists of inhabitants.
Descriptive term: resiant roll(s), list(s) of resiants/residents, list(s) of inhabitants
See also: Rental, Rent, Tenants, Suit, Call
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S

Steward Definition: Use for documents created by the steward of a manor including steward's memoranda books.
Descriptive term: steward's memoranda book(s), steward's papers incl...
Suit Definition: Lists and rolls of tenants who owe suit to the court.
Descriptive term: suit roll(s), list(s) of suitors
See also: Jury, Call, Tenants
Surrender and Admission Definition: Surrender and admission was the process by which transfers of copyhold land were made in the manorial courts. Tenants of copyhold land were not free to do as they wished with their land. Copyhold tenants had to seek the lord's permission to buy, sell, inherit, sublet, exchange or mortage their land. Land would be surrendered into the hands of the lord and the next tenant admitted. This procedure was written down in the court roll, and the tenant given a copy of the relevant entry as proof of his tenure. Hence the name 'copyhold' for land held by copy of the court roll. The keyword is used for bundles, or groups of surrenders only, admissions only, and surrenders and admissions together, which may also include conditional surrenders and powers of attorney to surrender. It is also used for registers of surrenders and admissions, indexes to such registers and lists of surrenders and admissions. Only where this type of document appears in numbers of more than 10 have the been included in the Manorial Documents Regsiter. In this number they may be regarded as working papers, perhaps gathered together by the steward. Documents in smaller numbers and single items have not been included and are regarded as title deeds. Surrenders and admissions may copy court roll and estreat. Most documents so listed will have been checked to ensure that they were not copies of court rolls or estreats of fines and amercements.
Descriptive term: surrenders, admissions, surrenders and admissions, register(s)/list(s) of surrenders and admissions conditional surrenders, powers of attorney to surrender, index(es) to register(s) of surrenders and admissions list(s)/register(s) of surrenders to the use of a will
Survey Definition: A survey is a written description of a manor consisting of descriptions of boundaries, customs and a rent roll. A special court called a court of survey was held, a jury empanelled and a list of questions or "articles of enquiry" drawn up. The presence of these components of the survey is included in the Manorial Documents Regsiter in the document description. The documents mainly follow the format suggested by Fitzherbert and Norden. 'Survey' has not be used as a generic descriptive term. 'Custumal' and 'extent', which both describe types of surveys, appear as keywords in their own right. Commissions to survey and articles of enquiry for survey, where these survive as separate documents, have been noted on the Manorial Documents Regsiter.
Descriptive term: survey(s) + (presentment, bounds, rent roll), commission to survey, articles of enquiry for survey.
See also: Map, Survey, Parliamentary, Extent, Terrier, Particular, Perambulation, Custumal, Rental, Rent, Inquisition, Valor
Survey, Parliamentary Definition: Surveys of Crown and escheated manors made during the Commonwealth period, in preparation for the sale of Crown lands. The documents will be found in The National Archives but copies will occasionally be found among collections of family and estate records. They are in English as opposed to Latin and follow a standard format. They are not manorial documents but have been included in the Manorial Documents Regsiter because of their usefulness.
Descriptive term: survey (Parliamentary)
See also: Survey
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T

Tenants Definition: Used for lists of tenants, including lists of copyholders or freeholders.
Descriptive term: list(s) of tenants, list of copyhold tenants, list of freehold tenants
See also: Residents, Rental, Rent, Suit, Call, Jury
Terrier Definition: A terrier is a description of a manor which follows a topographical arrangement.
Descriptive term: terrier(s)
See also: Survey, Extent, Rental, Rent, Map, Particular
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V

Valor Definition: A valor is a document which sets out the income and expenses of an estate in summary form, sometimes showing how much each manor could be expected to provide. Valors were based on manorial and receivers' accounts.
Descriptive term: valor(s)
See also: Valuation
Valuation Definition: Use for documents found separately from, although often alongside, particulars.
Descriptive term: valuation(s)
See also: Valor
Verdict Definition: Documents containing the verdict, or conclusion of the jury after deliberations on court business. Files or bundles separate from the court rolls. They often relate to ownership or inheritance of land. For example, "we the jury aforesaid find that Jane Dewes died since the last court and that Jane Dixon is next heir to all that messuage....."
Descriptive term: verdict(s)
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W

Will Definition: Registers of wills or bundles of wills which have been used in the administration of copyhold land. In particular, where a will has been used in the process of a surrender to the uses of a will. Single wills are not included.
Descriptive term: will(s), register(s) of wills, index(es) of wills
See also: Probate
Wreck Definition: Used for papers and volumes which contain details of wrecks and the profits thereof.
Descriptive term: wreck book(s), papers rel to right of wreck
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