Caillaux, Joseph (1863-1944) Leading French radical politician. The trial of his
second wife for the murder of the editor of Le Figaro was
the major topic of political discussion in France in the summer
in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of N France. Scene of the first
large-scale deployment of tanks in warfare, when British forces
attacked the Hindenburg Line to the west of Cambrai (20 November-7
Cameroon German colony in Central Africa, bordering Nigeria and French Equatorial
Africa. After overcoming stout resistance, Allied forces occupied
the capital Yaoundé on 1 January 1916. After the war, it
became a mandate territory divided into British and French areas
Formed in September 1915 when a second division of Canadian
troops arrived at the Western Front; served with particular distinction
at Vimy Ridge (9 April 1917) and during the Allied counter-offensive
in the summer and autumn of 1918.
Canal du Nord Canal in NE France, fully completed in 1965. Crossed in a daring
assault by Canadian Corps troops during the Allied counter-offensive
on the Western Front (27 September-1 October 1918).
Cape Helles Series of beaches on the southern tip of Gallipoli; one of two sites
for the Allied landings on the peninsula on 25 April 1915.
Caporetto Italian (now Slovenian) village; Slovenian name: Kobarid. Scene
of a crushing Italian defeat at the hands of Austro-German forces
(24 October-12 November 1917).
Mountain range in central and eastern Europe, extending
from present-day Slovakia to central Romania.
Casement, Sir Roger (1864-1916) Former British diplomat and Irish nationalist. Executed
for treason on 3 August 1916 for his part in organising the Easter
Rising, 24 April 1916.
Caucasus Mountain range in SW Russia, running along the northern border of
present-day Georgia and Azerbaijan; between the Black Sea and the
Cavell, Edith (1865-1915)
British nurse. Executed by the Germans in occupied Belgium on 12
October 1915 for helping Allied prisoners to escape. Her case was
quickly adopted by Allied propaganda as an example of German barbarity.
Cenotaph Monument in Whitehall, London, honouring the dead of both world
wars. Designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and erected in 1920.
Central Powers Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary during the First World War;
later joined by Turkey and Bulgaria.
Chantilly Town and holiday resort in Picardy, northern France. The French
army's Grand Quartier Général (GQG), it was the site
of the Allied conference in December 1915 at which an agreement
for a major Anglo-French offensive on the River Somme in 1916 was
of the Imperial General Staff Up to the end of the Second
World War, the professional (military) head of the British army.
(1870-1922) Author of the popular pre-war spy novel
The Riddle of the Sands (1903), in which the two heroes
stumble across a German plan to invade England. Despite serving
with the British army in the First World War, he later joined the
IRA and was executed by firing squad in Dublin in 1922.
(1874-1965) First lord of the Admiralty, 1911-15; chancellor of
the Duchy of Lancaster, 1915; commanded a battalion on the Western
Front, 1915-16; minister of munitions, 1917-19; war (and air) secretary,
Region of SE Asia Minor that formed part of the Ottoman empire in
1914; known today as the southern Turkish province of Adana.
Georges (1841-1929) French prime minister, 1906-09 and
1917-20. Appointed prime minister in November 1917 in the aftermath
of the failed Nivelle offensive and the French army mutinies, he
promised a more forthright prosecution of the French war effort.
Remembered as 'Father Victory', he also led the French delegation
that negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
of Imperial Defence (CID) Established permanently for
the first time in 1904 as the government body charged with organising
Britain's defence and military preparations. Its staff always included
the prime minister, the war secretary, the commander-in-chief of
the British army and the first sea lord. During the First World
War, its duties were largely taken over by a War Council drawn from
Cabinet members and it did not resume full operations until 1922.
on Alleged German Outrages Committee formed in December
1914 under the stewardship of Lord Bryce to investigate allegations
of German war crimes in occupied Belgium. The report of its findings,
which accused the German army of a wide range of horrific atrocities,
was published in May 1915.
City in northern France, on the River Oise. Scene of the armistice
between Germany and the Allies that ended the First World War on
11 November 1918. Also the scene of the signing of the Franco-German
armistice in June 1940.
Capital of the Ottoman empire until its collapse in 1918. The name,
by which it had been known since AD 330, was changed to Istanbul
Naval strategy based on a collection of ships travelling under armed
protection. Used systematically by the Royal Navy from June 1917
to safeguard Allied merchant and military shipping against German
Area of Atlantic coastline off Chile. Scene of a German naval victory
over the Royal Navy on 1 November 1914.
election' Term by which the first post-war election in
Britain on 14 December 1918 is commonly known. It referred to the
150 Liberal candidates who gave a pledge (called a 'coupon' by Asquith)
to support the Lloyd George coalition, which was returned to office
in a landslide victory.
Ancient city on the River Tigris in Mesopotamia. Scene of British
defeat at the hands of Turkish forces (22-26 Nov 1915).
Originally Habsburg POWs, this group of roughly 70,000 Czechs and
Slovaks was trained and funded by the Allies to fight against the
Central Powers on the Eastern Front during the First World War.
Trapped in Russia amid the chaos of the post-revolutionary period,
the Legion clashed with Bolshevik forces in May 1918, thereby inadvertently
providing the catalyst for the Russian civil war.