1. Why use this guide?
This guide will help you find records on elementary and primary schools at The National Archives.
These are largely records of administration and policy covering individual institutions established since 1833 and do not include records of individual teachers or pupils.
2. Essential information
Before 1944 primary schools were called 'elementary schools' because that was the only education most people needed. The term 'primary school' only came into use as a result of the 1944 Education Act.
State financial involvement in education began in 1833 when annual grants were made available to support the building of schools. Before this date educational initiative was essentially private and often religious and, for these reasons, most of the records of elementary and primary schools at The National Archives date from after 1833.
The records were created for the use of central government departments and continue to be arranged and catalogued not by subject, but as they were originally used. To find information on an individual school or area, therefore, you may need to look across a number of different record seriesa grouping of records held by The National Archives, based on common function or subject.
When searching for records of a school it is important to remember that many school names change over time.
3. Getting started
There are tens of thousands of records on primary and elementary schools at The National Archives. Most of them were written and created by the Department for Education (reference code ED) and its predecessors.
You can use Discovery, our catalogue, to search for a school by name and location, but you should treat the results with caution. Not all records of schools can be found this way as they have not all been catalogued by school name.
Use the guidance below to identify particular records seriesa grouping of records held by The National Archives, based on common function or subject that you want to search. The guidance will tell you what to search by, for example school name, county or place name. Then use the advanced search page to create a search restricted to the relevant series.
4. Key records
Below are some of the most useful and significant records seriesa grouping of records held by The National Archives, based on common function or subject for finding information on elementary and secondary schools. You can browse each series by clicking on the reference codes or search within the series using a keyword by going to the advanced search page in our catalogue and restricting your search to the relevant reference code.
4.1 School files 1857-1945
Search for school files in ED 21 by school name and by place. Each school in receipt of an annual grant has at least one 'school file' with correspondence from and about the school. The files include correspondence about school premises, trusts, inspection and organisation.
4.2 School digest files 1854-1984
Search by school in ED 161 for records relating to primary schools established before 1966. The information in these files is similar to that in ED 21, though on the whole later in date, much of it covering the period 1944-1966. These files have been heavily weeded, meaning many documents do not contain all their original information and are often very slim.
4.3 Local Education Authority Development Plans 1945-1966
Search by county in ED 152 for Local Education Authorities' (LEAs) development plans for post-war education in their area, as well as plans for future expansion. These were required under the stipulations of the 1944 Education Act.
4.4 Trust deeds and other property records
The National Archives holds various kinds of records of the establishment and foundation of schools. Some of the most significant are listed below, covering the following dates:
- 1736-1925 - trust deeds in C 54 and J 18 (see our guide, Conveyances of land for charitable uses in trust deeds 1736-1925 for advice on how to search these record series)
- 1856-1925 - trust deeds enrolled with the Charity Commissioners in CHAR 12 (there are indexes in each volume)
- 1903-1920 - enrolled deeds for Church of England elementary schools in ED 191
- 1926-1963 - enrolments with the Charity Commissioners in CHAR 13 (separate place name index in CHAR 13/483-492 and on microfilm at The National Archives at Kew)
4.5 Building grant applications 1833-1871
Between 1833 and the Education Act of 1870, local patrons and charities, acting as sponsors to a proposed school, could apply to the Treasury for financial assistance towards school building costs.
Search our catalogue for grant applications in ED 103 by school name or town.
Original applications included detailed plans. These plans are generally preserved in local record offices, but a small number are available in ED 228.
4.6 Preliminary statements 1846-1924
Annual parliamentary grants to schools were available from 1846. In order to receive a grant each school had to provide information about its income, expenditure, accommodation, staffing, fees and number of pupils.
4.7 Parish files and the educational census of 1871
The 1870 Elementary Education Act established a national system of elementary education. To ensure that there would be a place for every child, a census was taken of school places. Search educational census returns in:
- ED 2 by parish or place name. These are parish files where there was no school or more than one school in a parish.
- ED 3 by parish. This record series covers only London.
- ED 16 by borough. This record series covers municipal boroughs.
- ED 21 by school name. These are school files where there was only one school in a parish.
- ED 33 by school name. Some returns have been filed with material on independent schools where there was only one school in the parish.
5. Other records
You can browse the record series listed below by clicking on the reference codes or search within each series using a keyword by going to the advanced search page in our catalogue and restricting your search to the relevant reference code.
5.1 School history sheets
The Board of Education introduced school history sheets in the 1920s, recording, in summary form, details about each school in England maintained by Local Education Authorities. Details include:
- date of establishment
- status and size of the school
- the sex and age range of its pupils
Search for school history sheets in ED 185 by county.
5.2 Funding and finance
Consult endowment files for information on the funding and finance of schools in:
- ED 49: private endowments for elementary schools (1853-1945)
- ED 27: includes information on endowments for both elementary and secondary schools (1850-1945)
5.3 Records of the Welsh Department of Education
Records for Welsh schools are generally in the same series as their English counterparts. Exceptions are:
- development plans for Welsh LEAs in BD 7 and ED 216
- additional elementary, primary and secondary school files in ED 216 (search by school name or place)
For general administrative and policy files on Welsh education see:
- ED 91 and ED 92
- ED 220 for policy matters post 1944 (many early files in this series were damaged by flooding in 1960 at the Welsh Department's office in Cardiff)
5.4 Records of independent and private schools
- ED 33 (1871-1944)
5.5 Records of Poor Law schools and their successors
Poor Law schools were provided and maintained by the guardians of the poor and could be attached to workhouses or run as separate schools. Consult the following series:
- MH 27 (1848-1910) - for district schools (run jointly by several poor law unions in predominantly urban areas).
- MH 12 (1833-1909) and MH 32 (1834-1904) - for correspondence about workhouse schools run by individual unions
- ED 132 (1904-1953) - for poor law schools converted into public elementary schools
- ED 95 (1929-1944) - for local authority schemes for the education of poor law children
5.6 Surveys and reports on elementary education
An enquiry into education in England and Wales was conducted as part of the 1851 ecclesiastical census. A small number of the returns, which were voluntary, survive in HO 129 (search by place). A number of other surveys of school provision were presented to Parliament in the 19th century. These records are Parliamentary Papers and can be accessed online (see section 6).
5.7 Lists of schools
ED 270 contains various lists of schools giving details about the type of institutions and their status between 1834 and 1985.
5.8 Schools' census ('Form 7') datasets 1974-2006
Browse the Schools' Census returns in ED 267 for information collected on individual primary schools between 1975 and 1994. The information includes:
- pupil numbers by age and gender
- teacher numbers by gender and type
- types of classes taught
5.9 Grant Maintained Schools Database 1992-1999
Consult the Grant Maintained Schools Database in ED 278 for details on each school as at March 2000, including information about the type of school, denomination, selection policy and age of pupils. You can find full details of what information is provided in the series description in our catalogue.
6. Records in other archives
Consult the Edubase website, a register of all educational establishments in England and Wales, maintained by the Department for Education.
Consult the numerous surveys of school provision which reported to Parliament in the 19th century. These can be accessed online via the House of Commons Parliamentary Papers website (institutional subscription required). Some are also available to view through The National Archives library (see links below).
The surveys include:
- the Abstract of Answers and Returns Relative to the Poor (1803-1804)
- the Digest of Parochial Returns (1819)
- Abstract of Education Returns (1835)
- Report of the Commissioners for taking a Census of Great Britain on Education (1852-1853)
- The Royal Commission on the State of Popular Education in England [Newcastle Commission] (1861)
- Return of Schools for Poorer Classes of Children in Municipal Boroughs of Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool and Manchester; Report on Quality of Education which Schools provide (1870)
7. Further reading
Ann Morton, Education and the State, from 1833, Public Record Office Readers' Guide No 18 (PRO, 1997)