1. Why use this guide?
Use this guide to find out about administrative or policy files relating to teachers and teacher training in England and Wales.
We do not hold:
- records of individual teachers or day to day records of individual training colleges - contact local record office or school/ training college
- teacher training certificates - contact the relevant examining body
2. Essential information
Different types of teacher training were established and carried out at different times:
- Before the Education Act 1902, the training of teachers was largely carried out under a pupil-teacher system System introduced in 1846 as a 5 year apprenticeship from age 13. Students received instruction from a master and did teaching themselves for which they were paid..
- Training schools and colleges (also called 'normal schools'). Initially started by the charities the British Society and the National Society in the early 19th century to train teachers in their elementary schools
- Universities became involved in teacher training in 1890 when 'day training colleges' attached to universities were established
- In 1902 the training of teachers became established as a form of higher education, enabling the new local education authorities (LEAs) to make secondary schools available for the training of pupil-teachers
3. General search tips
You can try a general keyword search to identify relevant records. However, there are more specific record seriesa grouping of records held by The National Archives, based on common function or subject with information on teacher training, many of which appear throughout this guide.
Use our catalogue to 'browse by reference' through document descriptions in the relevant series and identify document references.
3.1 How do I search the catalogue?
Use the advanced search in Discovery, our catalogue, to search within department code ED (Department of Education), where most records of teacher training are kept. Use keywords, such as:
- area e.g. 'Birmingham AND training'
- type of institution, e.g. 'University AND training' or 'Pupil teacher's centre'
- subject e.g. 'teacher AND misconduct'
Read our catalogue search help for more guidance.
4. Pupil teacher training (1846 - early 20th century)
Originally, pupil-teacher training and education took place at elementary schools under the supervision of the headmaster.
After the Elementary Education Act 1870 training took place at separate establishments called pupil-teacher centres, with teaching practice at elementary schools.
From 1902 regulations for pupil-teacher training were tightened up and secondary education encouraged wherever possible. From 1907 the bursar system An intending teacher attended school until 17 or 18 and then either proceeded to a training college or became a student teacher at a public elementary school. gradually replaced the pupil-teacher system System introduced in 1846 as a 5 year apprenticeship from age 13. Students received instruction from a master and did teaching themselves for which they were paid..
- surviving pupil-teacher centre files in ED 57
- annual reports of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education (PCCE) in ED 17. Inspection reports within PCCE reports 1848 -1854 contain a statement of annual grants paid to schools on account of pupil teachers, naming pupil-teacher apprentices and the year of their apprenticeship
- institution files for pupil-teacher centres which became secondary schools in ED 3
- inspection reports on pupil-teacher centres from 1900 in ED 109
5. Normal schools and training colleges
At 18 pupil-teachers could apply for the Queen's/King's Scholarship Examination (later the Preliminary Examination for the Certificate). Successful scholars had the opportunity of attending training colleges for two or three years.
These were residential colleges run by voluntary societies with some government subsidy. Training colleges were first set up in the early 19th century and many came to be modeled on Battersea Normal School, established in 1841.
For records about these establishments browse or consult:
- Privy Council Minutes of 1843 and 1844 authorising building grants for separate training colleges in ED 17/1
- building grant application papers in ED 103/140
- endowment files in ED 40
- ED 78 for information about these colleges (few papers prior to 1932 have survived)
- exceptionally, the papers of the National Training School of Cookery are in ED 164
6. Local Education Authority (LEA) training
The 1902 Education Act enabled LEAs to provide and maintain training colleges to meet demand for training college places.
In 1904 municipal training colleges were recognised and the following year building grants were made available to LEAs to encourage the provision of training colleges.
- LEA files on the supply of teachers in ED 67
- other LEA schemes for teacher training under the 1902 Act in ED 53
- files concerning the LEA provision of short courses for teachers at further education colleges, art schools and evening institutes in ED 61 (material prior to 1935 has not survived)
- the training college building grant files in ED 87
- general policy files on grant aid for training colleges in ED 86
files on training colleges maintained by voluntary bodies, colleges established by LEAs under the provisions of the 1902 Act and a few university colleges providing similar courses in ED 78
- HM Inspectors' reports on training colleges in ED 115
- papers on the Ministry of Education scheme for the emergency recruitment and training of teachers to meet post Second World War needs in ED 143
7. University training (1890 onwards)
Universities first became involved in teacher training in 1890 when, as one of the recommendations of the Royal Commission on the Working of the Elementary Education Acts (the Cross Commission), 'day training colleges' attached to universities were established.
- files on university teacher-training departments in ED 81 (no material survives before 1932)
- university and university college files in ED 119 which include information on the distribution of grants for teacher-training
The Burnham Committee on the Training of Teachers in Elementary Schools (1923-1925) recommended greater cooperation between training colleges and universities. This led to the establishment of Joint Examination Board Representatives from universities, training colleges and local education authorities, working with Her Majesty's Inspectorate (HMI). (JEBs) who devised and conducted the final examination for student teachers in academic subjects.
The recommendations of the McNair Report (1944) on the supply, recruitment and training of teachers and youth leaders included the formation of Area Training Organisations (ATOs) to develop a closer relationship between the universities and teacher-training colleges.
8. Post-war training and supply of teachers
The Fleming Committee was set up in 1943 to consider how to meet post-war requirements for teachers. It recommended a provisional scheme for the emergency recruitment and training of teachers in emergency training colleges which ran until 1951.
- papers relating to the work of the committee in ED 136/687-688 and ED 143/1-5
- policy papers relating to the scheme drawn up by the committee in ED 143
- representative emergency college files for Alnwick in Northumberland in ED 143/33-34, Borthwick Training College for Women in London in ED 143/35-36
The National Advisory Council on Training and Supply of Teachers (NACTST) was set up in 1948 to review national policy on the training, qualifications and distribution of teachers. Consult:
- ED 86/270-285, ED 86/448-459, ED 192/24-26 and ED 192/71-73 for papers on its activities
- ED 234 for the minutes and papers of the council and its sub committees from 1953-1965
The minutes, papers and report of the James Committee of Inquiry into Teacher Training 1971-2 are in ED 145.
The Teacher Training Agency was established in 1994 to fund the provision of teacher training, contribute to raising the standards and to provide information and advice on teaching as a career.
9. Teacher pay, pensions and conditions
The interest of central government in teachers has largely been confined to supply, but it has also been concerned with qualification, payment, pensions and conduct.
10. Teachers' Registration Council (1902 - 1949)
The Teachers' Registration Council was set up in 1902. The form in which the register was kept led to protests by the National Union of Teachers and it was withdrawn in 1907. The Council was not reconstituted until 1912.
Teacher registration began in 1914, although records include those who started their careers from the 1870s. Registration remained voluntary.
- minute books, together with copies of its reports for 1902-1906 in ED 44
- further papers relating to its work in ED 10
- original registration records for the period up to 1947 are available on the Findmypast website (£)
The Teachers Registration Council was superseded by the National Advisory Council on the Training and Supply of Teachers and registration abandoned in 1948. See section on Post war training and supply of teachers.
11. Further reading
Read Education and the State from 1833 by Ann Morton, Public Record Office Readers' Guide No 18 (PRO 1997).
Copies of the Commission reports mentioned above can be found via the Parliamentary Papers online website.